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Logical Inference in Computer Science: deduction, induction, abduction

Logic acknowledges three kinds of inference: deductive, inductive, and abductive. What kind of impact did they have on computer science and programming languages in particular?

Deduction is in some sense the golden standard of logical inference. It represents a set of fixed rule through which general statements are made more particular in a way which can be guaranteed to be sound, that is to preserve truth. Aristotle's syllogisms are an example of deductive inference:

All men are mortal.
Socrates is a man.
Therefore Socrates is mortal.
In programming language theory the impact of deductive thinking is best captured by the celebrated Curry-Howard correspondence between propositions (in a logic) and types (in a language). This correspondence is more than a technical result, although it can be precisely formulated. It is a guiding methodological principle which drives the design of functional programming languages.  Besides type systems, programming logics are usually given a deductive …