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The logic of machine learning: inductive and abductive reasoning

"The division of all inference into Abduction, Deduction, and Induction may almost be said to be the Key of Logic." C.S. Peirce
Deduction, Induction, Abduction
C.S. Peirce, in his celebrated Illustrations of the Logic of Science, re-introduced three kinds of Aristotelian reasoning: deductive, inductive, and abductive. Deduction and induction are widely used in mathematics and computer science, and they have been thoroughly studied by philosophers of science and knowledge. Abduction, on the other hand, is more mysterious. Even the name “abduction” is controversial. Peirce claims that the word is a mis-translation of a corrupted text of Aristotle (“απαγωγη´”), and sometimes used “retroduction” or “hypothesis” to refer to it. But the name “abduction” seems to be the most common, so we will use it. According to Peirce the essence of deduction is the syllogism known as “Barbara”:
Rule: All men are mortal. Case: Socrates is a man. —————— Result: Socrates is a mortal.
Peirce calls all …